Monthly Archives: November 2015

Symptoms of stomach diseases

Nausea:

  • Nausea can be pre-phase vomiting or independent phenomenon. Under the sickness we understand the unpleasant sensation (pressure) in the stomach, followed by pale skin, dizziness, salivation, cold extremities, drop in blood pressure and sometimes fainting. All this – the symptoms of hypertension vagus nerve. The mechanism of nausea, apparently, can be reduced to a sudden strong contractions of the stomach and irritate the nerve plexus in the abdomen.
  • Nausea can be a central origin (at the sight of something unpleasant, if disgusting, “nauseating” smell, even the thought of nasty things) and peripheral, reflex on the part of both the stomach and many other organs (liver, gall bladder, appendix, kidneys, and others.). Often it can be caused, for example, pressing the nerve plexus, in particular solar and downstream aorta. Perhaps stretching plexus plays a certain role, and with frequent complaints of nausea immediately after eating at the omission of the abdominal viscera. You can also explain the nausea after meals in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer, where we may assume, along with hypotonia of the stomach, or that the degree of expansion and ptosis. Nausea is more often nezheludochnogo origin, and this fact must be considered when evaluating this symptom.

Vomiting:

Vomiting is called involuntary jerky ejection of stomach contents through the persons mouth. Often it is a protective act in response to a hit in the stomach of a substance, its annoying.

The mechanism of vomiting consists of a series of coordinated movements: the closure of the pylorus occurs, termination of gastric motility, reduction in the pyloric part and filling the bottom of the stomach; followed by the opening of the cardia and filling of the esophagus; both by supporting movements of respiratory muscles and the abdominals are ejected masses of food from the stomach into the esophagus. The medulla oblongata near the cough and respiratory center is expected to find much of the emetic center.

There are central and peripheral vomiting. Vomiting of central origin are psychological (eg from one memory, or hysterical), brain (by increasing intracranial pressure), toxic (such as uremia), and vomiting caused by some means acting directly on the vomiting center (such as apomorphine). A characteristic feature of central vomiting is their stubbornness, lack of relief after them, the suddenness of their appearance without prior nausea.

Peripheral reflex or vomiting may occur as a result of stimulation of a variety of sensory nerves. But there are special places from irritation which is easiest to get a gag reflex: is the root of the tongue, soft palate and pharynx, mucous membrane of the stomach and the surface of the peritoneum.

There are the following vomiting, gastric nature.

  • 1. Vomiting from irritation
    a) different chemical substances introduced into the stomach, such as strong alkali or mineral acid, mercuric chloride, arsenic and m. p .;
    b) medicinal substances (digitalis, adonis, ipecac, and others.);
    c) food-or chemically irritating, such as rancid butter, spoiled meat, and so on. n., or due to an overflow hard digestible food. Vomiting due to irritation of the stomach is usually early (soon after a meal) and little abundant, because the significant content of the stomach is not possible because of the gag reflex. This kind of vomiting observed in dyspepsia, gastritis, and in the early stages of cancer.
  • 2. Vomiting due to functional stenosis of the pylorus (pilorospazm) is always food, mostly very acid (hydrochloric acid), comes in 2-6 hours after eating (the duration of gastric digestion) and observed in hypersecretion and ulcer.
  • 3. Vomiting due to organic pyloric stenosis (pyloric stenosis) is characterized by constancy and abundance. She often comes late in the evening or night, at intervals of a few days. In benign stenosis (scarring after ulceration) -rvota sour taste, and malignant (cancer) – often rotten.

Besides the gastric mucosa, the entire surface of the peritoneum can be a source of emesis. Vomiting is a constant companion of all peritonitis (in appendicular attack, periholetsistite, perimeter, etc.). Often there is vomiting due to irritation of the sensory nerves of the biliary tract (hepatic colic), renal pelvis (renal colic), female genital mutilation (with the inflammation of the uterus and appendages). For all these so-called reflex vomiting characterized by the fact that they do not stop, despite the complete emptying of the stomach.

Vomiting in gastric pathology is very important diagnostic symptom. If vomiting diagnostic evaluation should take into account: 1) the onset of vomiting, 2) the amount of vomit, 3) their reaction and 4) impurities gastric contents.

Time of onset of vomiting.

  • Vomiting in the morning and on an empty stomach is found in alcoholic gastritis due to accumulated per night – usually in the esophagus than in the stomach – saliva and mucus hypersecretion and due to the accumulation in the stomach of a very large number of acidic liquid as a result of continuous separation of gastric juice.
  • Vomiting immediately after eating (5-10 minutes) hypersensitivity is observed in the stomach of a local nature, such as ulcers and cancer of the cardiac portion of the stomach, or are the result of the general neurosis (hysteria).
  • Vomiting 2-3 hours after a meal in the middle of the digestive characteristic of gastritis, ulcers and stomach cancer.
  • Vomiting after 4-6 hours after eating observed in duodenal ulcer and chronic catarrh of the stomach with a large atoniej his muscles, especially if atony has led to the expansion of the stomach.
  • Still later vomiting – 6-12 hours or more after a meal, t. E. Vomiting of food eaten the day before or even earlier, when there is pyloric stenosis. Such late onset vomiting indicates that the weakening of the muscles of the stomach longer required sum irritation of the gastric mucosa to induce vomiting by a single abdominals.

Number of vomit is negligible vomiting pregnancy, morning vomiting of alcoholics, the neuroses of the stomach, and so on. N. The number corresponds to the amount of vomit ingested food by vomiting due to gastric catarrh. Very abundant vomit when atonic, expanded, poorly emptying the stomach into the duodenum, pyloric stenosis. Gastric capacity hereinafter sometimes becomes large, and the ejection of gastric contents occurs only after all it is filled. This vomiting more abundant, less frequently repeated.

Reaction vomit is acidic by the presence in them of hydrochloric acid at hypersecretion, neutral – while ahilii and cancer of the stomach when the stomach does not emit hydrochloric acid or alkaline due resulting from the putrefaction of proteins ammonia compounds in advanced cancer with pyloric stenosis and expansion of the stomach .

Impurities to vomit. The presence of mucus is usually said about chronic gastritis.

The admixture of pus in small amounts, are detected only microscopically observed in gastritis, the greater the amount of pus in vomit are rare – when phlegmonous gastritis, or at the opening of the cavity of the stomach ulcer, located in one of the adjacent organs.

The bile in the vomit appears as a result of throwing it into the stomach from the duodenum. It is observed at low acidity of the stomach or ahilii (dehiscence pyloric), at least at high acidity, as well as the loss of contractility of the pylorus (cancerous its infiltration).

The admixture of blood in vomit can be due to the ingestion of it from bleeding of the oral mucosa after nasal bleeding and so forth. The small amount of blood can be mixed to vomit at any form of violent vomiting, especially if irritating pre-damaged mucosa.

Blood in the vomit just described should be origin by questioning and objective examination of the patient to be able to distinguish from the real gastric bleeding (haematemesis), which often occurs with ulcers and gastric cancer, and occasionally liver cirrhosis. Bloody vomiting, gastric ulcer is usually abundant, and often the blood with her scarlet, but in contrast to pulmonary hemorrhage, it has a bright color and arterial never foams. Scarlet bloody vomit gastric ulcer because the bleeding in this case and there is plenty fast, so vomiting occurs very soon, and the blood does not have time to change. In gastric cancer bloody vomiting occurs almost always in small quantities, the color of blood from gastric retention and chemical changes in the hemoglobin under the influence of hydrochloric acid becomes brown, like the color of coffee grounds. This feature, however, does not have anything specific, because it can be at least slowly developing stomach bleeding if vomiting occurs shortly after it began.

Diseases of the stomach

Symptoms of diseases of the stomach:

Disorders of the main functions in diseases of the stomach leading to a number of characteristic disease symptoms. The most important of them – the perversion of taste, changes in appetite, increased thirst, belching, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and pain.

Dysgeusia:

  • In patients with gastric often a bad taste in the mouth or dulling of taste sensations. In this case, examination of the oral cavity are usually coated tongue. This is due to the fact that the epithelium of the tongue swells, cloudy, partly exfoliated and covers language as a whitish-gray coating. Decayed desquamated epithelium and causes an unpleasant taste in the mouth. A thick layer of epithelium lowered further impedes access to the flavors taste buds, resulting food seems tasteless.
  • Bad taste in the mouth and blunting of taste sensations accompany acute and chronic catarrh of the stomach and when they have diagnostic value.

Changes in appetite:

  • Appetite is a very important factor regulating meals. Everyone knows its effect on saliva, gastric secretion (delicious juice), its motor function.
  • Changes in appetite may be of central origin, ie. E. Depend on the influence of the central nervous system and peripheral origin, ie. E. Develop reflex mainly by the digestive tract. Changes in appetite of central origin are expressed in violation of it (after a deep nervous shock, mentally ill, and so on. N.). With regard to changes in appetite peripheral nature, they are often observed in diseases of the stomach. Some gastric ulcers accompanied by a complete lack of appetite, and other appetite remained normal at the third increased appetite.
  • Complete loss of appetite (anorexia) is observed in acute catarrh and gastric cancer. In acute gastritis no appetite completely, the thought of food sickens. Loss of appetite in cancer of the stomach – a very common phenomenon to develop in the early stages of the disease.

The decrease in appetite is at a chronic gastritis:

as soon as the patient begins to eat as he had lost appetite and he usually tries to arouse him some spicy spicy food. Appetite is lowered as in motor impairment of the stomach on the ground organic or inorganic pyloric stenosis, accompanied by write latency in the stomach or incomplete emptying.

Saving appetite can be diagnostically important feature, such as a stomach ulcer (but often the patient avoids food for fear of future pain). Patients with hypersecretion often have frequent need to eat to soothe discomfort podlozhechkoy that could reach the degree of severe pain (hunger pains).

Perversion of appetite. In some diseases of the stomach observed selective attitude of patients to a particular kind of food; For example, gastritis and cancer often has an aversion to meat, with ahilii – fatty foods.

Increased thirst:

Increased thirst and frequent fluid intake (polydipsia) are observed in diseases of the stomach is not very often – mainly in hypersecretion and motor failure. The need for a drink at the copious stomach acid gastric juice is based on experience, that the discomfort and sometimes pain calmed by breeding very acidic gastric contents. Increased thirst when motor failure (under restrictions gatekeeper and a significant expansion of the stomach) due to the fact that the water lingering in the stomach, almost not absorbed, resulting in the depletion of the water comes tissues.

Belching:

  • Under belching usually understand these two things: 1) a sudden and sometimes sonorous stepping through the mouth air accumulated in the stomach or esophagus, it is an empty belching or burping air (eructatio), and 2) stepping into the mouth a small part of the stomach contents usually with air burp – burp is food (regurgitatio). The mechanism is to reduce the regurgitation of stomach muscles during open cardiac opening.
  • Belching of air can be obtained as a result of ingestion of air (aerophagia); In this case, it is sometimes very loud, audible at a distance and observed in some forms of psychoneuroses stomach.
  • Most regurgitation is due to the formation of gases in the stomach shout abnormal gastric fermentation. Fermentation is usually associated with delayed gastric emptying, with some degree of congestion, the gas is usually odorless (carbon dioxide). But in some cases, belching a smell of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulfide). This indicates that far gone decay protein substances (containing sulfur), which is characteristic of chronic gastritis, gastric dilatation and delayed emptying. Belching rotten in the morning on an empty stomach is characteristic of pyloric stenosis (scarring after ulceration) with a large expansion of the stomach and abundant stagnation.
  • Belching food – it’s essentially a small vomiting without much effort and without prior nausea, but often at the same time the gas belching. Belching with the hypersecretion of gastric contents may be acidic. Especially acid regurgitation, burning mouth, occurs in a fit of hypersecretion, such as during an attack of pain in the stomach ulcer.

Bitter taste regurgitation:

occurs frequently at high acidity and bitter taste it depends on peptones and when throwing into the stomach from the duodenum bile.

The unpleasant burping rancid butter indicates low acidity or absence of free hydrochloric acid, and the delay in gastric emptying; It is formed by the oil, dairy and other organic acids that appear in the stomach due to the fermentation process.

Belching with putrid odor is typical for large extensions of the stomach with low acidity or Akhil and stagnation in it (eg gastric cancer).

Heartburn:

Heartburn – a peculiar sense of heat and burning sensation in the lower part of the esophagus. It is connected, probably, with spasm and depends swallowed a small amount of acidic gastric contents. Mechanism heartburn same as regurgitation, but not to regurgitate liquid reaches the mouth.

Heartburn is most often a manifestation of the acidity of gastric contents (75%), but it can occur at normal pH (10% of cases), and at low (10%) and even in the absence of the acidity (5%). Heartburn often observed in abnormal development of gastric acid fermentation (butyric, lactic and others.) In cases of failure of its motor.

Forms of gastritis

With the help of instrumental methods and functional gastritis diagnosed with a variety of options. However, all divided into gastritis with:

  • normal or high acidity;
  • zero or low acidity.

The symptoms of gastritis with reduced or increased secretion generally distinguish possible, but the final diagnosis is based on the study of gastric juice, obtained by probing and intragastric pH meters using introduced into the stomach of special sensors. The latter method is convenient because it is possible to long-term monitoring of indicators of gastric juice. In some cases, the pH of gastric contents, determined by an indirect method, in the study of the pH of urine.

Gastritis with high acidity:

  • It is characterized by severe pain in the solar plexus or in the navel usually paroxysmal character. The pain subsides after taking a dietary food, increasing the breaks between meals. Pain in the right upper quadrant – getting a certificate of gastric juice into the duodenum. It is characterized by heartburn, morning sickness, rotten belching, rumbling in the abdomen, diarrhea (constipation often characteristic of gastritis with low acidity), metallic taste in the mouth.
  • In some cases, subclinical, with periodic relapses after consuming alcohol, drugs NSAIDs, cardiac glycosides (digitalis), potassium supplements, hormones (prednisolone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone). The attack can be triggered by the use of ” heavy ” food. Gastritis type determined by medical research.
  • Some type of gastritis can be at home. The need to use alkaline products (alkaline mineral water), significant relief state for some time after consumption indicates acidity of gastric juice.

Gastritis with low acidity:

  • The acid in the stomach is involved in the initial cleavage of coarse fibrous foods.
  • Research, adjusted to pH 6.5-7.0 show reduced acidity juice. By reducing the acidity of gastric juice is slowing down denaturation and protein breakdown, as a result, the intestinal peristalsis. Therefore, along with important pain symptoms in anatsidnyh gastritis (with low acidity) are constipation, bad breath, putrid, fermentation processes in the stomach.

Gastritis with low acidity often manifest weight in the stomach, rapid saturation after eating, flatulence intestinal gas power.

Gastritis with low acidity, in some cases, can resist adjustment by receiving digestive enzymes (festal, Gustav, etc.). Correct anatsidny gastritis can be at home, it is very simple. As gastric juice has reduced properties, it should be a long time to chew food. Thorough grinding food coma in the oral cavity with saliva treatment is not effective medical correction method gastritis.

Acute gastritis:

Catarrhal gastritis develops under the influence of aggressive drugs (aspirin, other NSAIDs) substances, chemical (alcohol, soft drinks, if consumed frequently), food (regular consumption of fatty, salty, smoked, pickled). Known as gastritis against the backdrop of poisoning (salmonellosis, etc.), renal, hepatic failure. Acute forms of gastritis can trigger diseases not directly related to the gastrointestinal tract (pneumonia, frostbite). This is due to the accumulation in the blood of unoxidized products in severe inflammation of the lungs, the skin, which provokes inflammation of the stomach. Describe the stress gastritis.

Fibrinous and necrotic gastritis develops at a special or accidental ingestion of strong acids (acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid) or alkalis. It is accompanied by excruciating pain.

Phlegmonous gastritis – a consequence of a deliberate or accidental injury to the stomach wall (swallowed pins, nails). Manifested purulent fusion of the stomach wall.

Symptoms catarrhal (simple) gastritis appears in 5-8 hours. It starts burning in the epigastric (synonyms – the stomach, the solar plexus). Develops pain in these areas of the body, nausea, vomiting, a metallic taste in the mouth. Poisoning complemented fever, persistent vomiting, diarrhea. Heavy state manifested bloody vomiting – Corrosive (necrotic) gastritis. Phlegmonous gastritis manifested phenomena peritonitis – a tense abdominal wall, a state of shock.

Chronic gastritis:

In the initial stages it occurs without symptoms bright. Periodically appear hypersensitive to certain types of food in the form of heartburn, bloating. Often there is a feeling of heaviness in the stomach full, the language detected plaque, a kind of pattern.

The chronic form of gastritis can develop between the ages of 20 years to a ripe old age. Manifested by periods of exacerbation and remission. In the period of acute symptoms are no different from acute inflammation in the form of a conventional set of symptoms – pain, combined with nausea and sometimes vomiting. Symptoms worse after taking certain types of food. This is usually a specific set of products that should be remembered and to try to eliminate from the diet or restrict use.

Considered dangerous signs of stomach bleeding. It appears black feces, pale mucous membranes and the skin of the patient.

Pale mucous membranes may be a sign of another, very dangerous condition – atrophic gastritis. It runs against deficiency of vitamin B12. This vitamin is very important in hematopoiesis. This type of gastritis may have other striking features. Risk of atrophic gastritis in that it is a precursor to the development of cancer cells in the epithelium and gastric walls. Detection of anemia amid signs of gastritis – an occasion to more closely examine the state of health.

Theme: diet for gastritis with high and low acidity

The human body has a protective resource, so lifestyle changes, adherence to diet properly designated comprehensive treatment significantly increases the likelihood of cure for gastritis.

Symptoms of gastritis

Signs and symptoms of stomach gastritis:

  • Gastritis are varied symptoms can occur without pronounced symptoms. The most characteristic symptom – pain in the solar plexus growing after ingestion of certain foods, liquids, drugs, particularly those with increased aggression to the mucosa of the stomach. Sometimes the pain is amplified in between meals. Often gastritis contraindicated: spicy foods, alcohol, soft drinks and other products, the use of which leads to an aggravation of gastritis.

Important, but less permanent, they are: heartburn, vomiting, belching. Often it is seen bloating, frequent passing flatus. The appearance of two of these symptoms on a background of abdominal pain is a reason to suspect gastritis.

Gastritis indicates reception, shortly before the start: food, medicines, corrosive liquids, other substances reception.

Much more difficult to identify the symptoms of chronic gastritis. For a long time limited signs of gastritis irregular stools, fur, fatigue, and shimmering rumbling stomach between meals, flatulence, recurring diarrhea or constipation.

Chronic gastritis usually does not cause a significant impact on the clinical condition of the patient, except for the reduced quality of life. The mild form of chronic gastritis is characterized by constipation, diarrhea. In severe than those specified – the frequent discharge of intestinal gas, anemia, lethargy, cold sweating, increased peristalsis, halitosis.

Symptoms of hyperacidity:

  1. The most common symptoms of gastritis with high acidity, in addition to general symptoms (nausea, vomiting)
  2. long-term pain in the solar plexus, disappearing after a meal;
  3. frequent diarrhea;
  4. heartburn after eating acidic foods;
  5. frequent urge to carminative mouth – burping.

Symptoms of low acidity:

The most common symptoms of gastritis with reduced or zero acidity:

  1. frequent unpleasant mouthfeel;
  2. meal manifested feeling of heaviness;
  3. ” rotten ” regurgitation;
  4. rumbling;
  5. nausea in the morning;
  6. problems with the regularity of bowel movements;
  7. disgusting breath.

Symptoms of acute gastritis:

  • Recurrence of chronic gastritis characterized by a variety of symptoms, most characterized by the following:
  • constant or intermittent pain in the solar plexus, is amplified immediately after a meal, or vice versa, during prolonged fasting;
  • belching air, burning in the breastbone, heartburn after meals, a metallic taste in the mouth;
  • nausea, vomiting half-digested food morning with a distinctive sour taste, sometimes vomiting of bile;
  • excessive salivation, thirst, weakness;
  • dyspeptic symptoms (constipation, diarrhea).
  • dizziness, palpitations, headache.

Symptoms of acute erosive (severe) forms of gastritis are complemented vomiting with blood clots, and sometimes vomiting with dark contents of vomit. Gastric bleeding during bowel movements, stool appears black. Sometimes gastric bleeding can be determined only by laboratory methods. Massive internal bleeding appears pale skin and mucous membranes (easily determined by the color of the sclera eyes), dizziness, tinnitus.

Stomach pain gastritis:

Stomachalgia – pain in the abdominal wall (cavity) – an important symptom of gastritis. Meanwhile, the pain is accompanied by, and other diseases of the abdominal cavity, which are collectively referred to as ‘acute abdomen’. They appear in the form of rezey and stabbing, pressing, shooting, burning and other types of pain.

Syndrome of acute abdomen – is appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastric cancer, oesophageal reflux, intestinal obstruction, and others. All the pain, at the above diseases, in one way or another combined with other symptoms characteristic of gastritis – vomiting, nausea, belching, constipation, diarrhea, change in body temperature, and others.

Pain-like gastritis may be a symptom of myocardial infarction, inflammation of the lining of the heart, lung, broken ribs. Stomach pain can be viral, bacterial, parasitic diseases in the intestines, the specific women’s issues, neuroses, diabetes.

At home, you can define the pain caused by gastritis. The most characteristic pain in gastritis, distinguishing it from other pathologies ” acute abdomen ” – a worsening of pain after:

  • meal, especially acute, smoked;
  • alcohol or certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • a long break in the meal.

Other variants of pain in the stomach, in the absence of clinical skills of work in the absence of the possibility of using laboratory and instrumental methods of investigation can be easily confused with symptoms of other ailments.

Causes of gastritis

(Helicobacter pylori)

Of particular interest are the causes of chronic gastritis. There are external and internal factors provoke the development of gastritis. Interestingly, some of the people gastritis develops much more slowly, do not cause a significant impact on the body. That is, the likely causes gastritis hide behind many factors, combinations thereof.

The most significant external causes of gastritis:

  • Effects on the gastric wall bacteria Helicobacter pylori, other less bacteria, fungi. Approximately 80% of patients diagnosed with gastritis isolated AFB. The bacteria are actively introduced into the wall of the gastric mucosa secrete specific substances irritate the mucous membrane, stimulate local change in pH wall inflammation. The final answer to why some people the bacteria causing considerable damage, while others do not, so far, unknown.
  • Eating disorders. It was found that poor diet is a common cause of gastritis. The statement is true in the case of overeating and malnutrition. It is to diversify the diet of plant foods rich in vitamins and fiber, normalizing peristalsis. At the initial stages of the development of gastritis should avoid foods containing crude fiber, fat, spicy canned, pickled food.
  • Alcohol abuse is isolated as a separate cause of stomach gastritis. Ethanol in small amounts is an important component of the biochemical processes in the body, but a large amount of alcohol provokes an imbalance of acid-base balance in the body. Besides alcohol in large doses, with regular use significantly affects the other digestive organs – the liver, pancreas, detrimental effect on metabolic processes in the body.
  • It is noted that some drugs that are widely used in medicine as prevent blood clotting (antiplatelet), pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs have serious side effects – irritate the stomach lining. Most frequently cause gastritis, non-hormonal anti-inflammatory agents (aspirin, etc.), glucocorticoid hormones (prednisolone, etc). These drugs are strictly recommend the use of a doctor’s appointment, fractional, in small doses, as well as after a meal.

Some researchers say the effect on the development of gastritis presence of parasitic infestations, chronic stress, corrosive chemicals used in food, or accidentally ingested.

The main internal (relating to a violation of homeostasis) reasons:

Congenital predisposition to the human gastro-intestinal diseases;

Duodenal reflux – throw pathological bile from the duodenum into the stomach. This phenomenon is referred to as reflux. Bile falling into the cavity of the stomach changes the pH of the juice, irritate the stomach wall. Initially, causes inflammation of the antral part of the stomach wall, then his other departments involved.

Autoimmune processes that damage the immune protection at mucosal cells properties. As a result, the cells cease to normal functioning, lose their original properties. This phenomenon triggers a cascade of reactions small changing pH of the juice, causes irritation of the stomach wall. There endogenous intoxication, violation of the resilience of the mucous membrane to the aggressive environment of the stomach juice.

Hormonal, vitamin metabolism, the pathogenesis of reflex influence of neighboring stomach organs.

DNA experiments

Experiments have shown that a major role is played here by the enzyme topoisomerase IIβ.

Cellular DNA is usually quite complicated thing and twisted in superhelix so that the proteins that carry out its replication (ie a doubling) before dividing or transcription (RNA synthesis), simply can not with such confusing and twisted DNA work. And here they are needed topoisomerase, which make the DNA double-stranded breaks or single and then stitch them back, thus unraveling the complex space in the DNA. When neurons of topoisomerase II? turned off, the amount of damage-breaks in DNA rapidly decreased, but at the same time silent genes necessary for neuronal response to a stimulus.

Near these genes are located specific sequences of nucleotides to lure to his protein CTCF.

  • It serves as an inhibitor of transcription, i.e. in the presence of its RNA gene can be synthesized. Activation of multiple genes begins with the fact that proteins are sitting on a regulatory region of DNA called a promoter interact with proteins on a regulatory domain called an enhancer. However, CTCF create DNA loops and curves, because of which the promoter and enhancer (and proteins that sit on them) can not get close and interact. And here comes to the aid of topoisomerase, which, by cutting the DNA, helps it to change shape so that the sequence of converged regulators, in spite of the protein CTCF. Then begins the synthesis of RNA on the gene necessary for strengthening the synapse and neuron can now securely integrate into a storage chain.
  • Of course, then the gap will be embedded in the DNA. But it is quite possible that with the age of the proteins that make tears, stop working as it should, and leave such damage uncorrected. So that this molecular mechanism is necessary for memory formation, it contributes to the aging of cells. That is precisely the ability to learn and remember becomes a major cause of age-related cognitive disorders – in full accordance with the Solomon expression “in much wisdom is much grief” (though King Solomon had in mind here still something other than neurophysiological disorders).

It follows that in order to prevent age-related troubles (up to Alzheimer’s disease), arising from the problems in the genome, we need to take care not only about the fact that the DNA is generally no breaks were not – they just need, and lots of it – and the fact that such breaks promptly healed repariruschimi systems. While before we talk about the prospects of new clinical data, test them on human cells.

Smart Drugs

A few years ago in the major Western media immediately appeared a number of publications about ethical to take drugs to improve memory. Doctors and journalists wondered whether it is not doping, the use of which, as in sport, should be banned. Such attention to the problem due to the fact that it was then that the students en masse began to use the so-called smart drugs, commonly prescribed for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit disorder, and so on. N. In Russia, however, to the question of ethics is far: drugs that are traditionally mom give lagging behind in School children, or who are taking the same students are simply ineffective.

Nootropics:

  • If you ask any forum “What to take to improve your memory?” – Someone will offer glycine or piracetam. Both of these drugs belong to a group of nootropics is extremely common in the former Soviet Union. It is known that the nootropic drugs – are compounds that stimulate metabolism in the brain. However, numerous studies have failed to prove that, for example, the same piracetam improves memory. As for glycine, that there have been only one small study, which can be regarded as in any way conclusive, demonstrating the benefit of the drug. In the West, glycine is viewed more as a means for the treatment of schizophrenia, although this is not common practice.

Traditional methods:

  • Wishes to improve memory and thus “not poisoned any chemistry” is often used extract of biloba ginkgo, fish oil, vitamin E, ginseng, and so on. D., And so on. N. As is usually the case with alternative medicine, research, giving at least some certainty as to the effectiveness of these drugs, not so much. However it found that Ginkgo biloba helps dementia (senile dementia). But the study involving healthy people less ambitious and convincing. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not effective to improve memory in healthy elderly people. Ginseng has only a small effect on cognitive abilities. A vitamin E, fish oil, multivitamins and many other biologically active additives not proved effective.

Smart drugs:

  • Generally, pharmaceutical preparations for improving memory (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) designed based on those who have to age it gets worse, for example, due to Alzheimer’s disease. However, for some time now, these funds are actively used for other purposes – bought by the students during the session. The same happens with drugs from attention deficit disorder (methylphenidate) and narcolepsy (modafinil). They increase the production of various neurotransmitters – norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, and the like. D. – Thereby improving signal transmission between nerve cells.

These drugs do help to improve memory for a few hours, concentrate. However, they have two serious disadvantage. First, under the influence of such funds, the person may behave abnormally, roughly in relation to everything that prevents him from practicing the selected task. Second, the drugs have been developed for human patients. How such funds operate on a healthy young brain in the long term is unknown.